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By Benjamin B. Wolman (eds.)
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Additional info for The Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Psychoanalysis
However, in the long term, punishment, particularly physical punishment, appears to enhance aggression rather than inhibit it. A child with a strong conscience will refrain from carrying out a socially prohibited act, including an aggressive act, even when she knows she will not be discovered and need not fear punishment by external authority figures. The development of conscience is related to such factors as parental warmth and parental use of reasoning as a technique of discipline. Associated with conscience development, but theoretically distinct from it, is the acquisition of selfcontrol.
The analyst is at times a transference object and then again a real person, as in child analysis. The interpretive work during the course of an analysis, which repetitively demonstrates certain gained insights about the adolescent's life in various connections (experiences, behavior, emotions), is the working-through process. In this regard, the data from transference are a significant, but not exclusive, source of insight in analyzing children and adolescents. Reexperiencing the variety of attitudes in the transference situation allows clarification and interpretation to educate the patient as to the significance of the past conflicts and their influence upon the reality of the present.
With a few exceptions among arthropods, such as army ants, it occurs chiefly in vertebrates, where it may be developed into a major system of behavior in a variety of orders. Where well developed, it results in the maintenance of a social group, often very large. Such groups have received specialized names in popular terminology, such as schools of fishes, flocks of birds, herds of hoofed mammals, packs of wolves and some other carnivores, troops of primates, and crowds of people. Little attention has been paid to this major motivational system in humans except in connection with social facilitation.