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By P Linko; J Larinkari

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Extra resources for Enzyme engineering in food processing

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C. Specific and Molecular Activity If the enzyme has been obtained in pure form, its specific activity can be expressed as the number of enzyme units per milligram of enzyme protein. A specific activity can also be based on the enzyme units per milligram of protein in an impure preparation. In that case, the specific activity is that of the particular preparation and not that of the pure enzyme. The specific activity of a particular enzyme preparation permits a calculation of its purity if the specific activity of the pure enzyme is known.

That means that NAD acts as an intermediate in a chain of enzymatic reactions involved in the transmittal of hydrogen. In this sense the coenzyme plays the part of an enzyme substrate. Other coenzymes which act as hydrogen carriers are glutathione, L-ascorbic acid, the quinones, and the cytochromes (cytochrome may be considered an electron carrier). Other coenzymes act as carriers or transmitters for other groups, such as phosphate carriers (adenosine triphosphate-adenosine diphosphate), amino group carriers (2-oxoglutarate-glutamate), methyl group carriers (tetrahydrofolic acid-5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolic acid).

In this case hydrolysis is limited to those portions of the substrate which are in immediate contact with the enzyme. Proteolytic and lipolytic activity can be readily detected in stored cereals. At moisture levels below 16% this activity is generally due to the native enzymes of the cereals. At higher moisture levels enzymes from molds that grow on the cereal may play a part in the hydrolytic reactions. Bitterness and rancidity develop frequently in stored cereals through enzyme action on the lipid fraction.

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