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By R. B. Miller

This ebook is dedicated to an exam of the applied sciences and useful implementation suggestions linked to foodstuff irradiation utilizing accelerator assets of ionizing radiation, in particular electron beams and x-rays. Introductory chapters summarize the results of ionizing radiation on organic organisms and the natural compounds comprising meals, and offers an outline of the nutrients irradiation method. next chapters conceal the main points of the electron beam and x-ray power deposition, electron accelerator applied sciences, beam scanning platforms, fabric dealing with platforms, protective layout, and method keep watch over issues. very important appendices disguise radiation dosimetry, precipitated radioactivity, and ozone new release.

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Example text

Otherwise, the product can be efficiently processed using electron beams, with the particular approach depending on the areal density and the MMR. 4 g/cm2 . ) The required system power level is determined by the minimum required dose, the throughput rate and the type of ionizing radiation, as estimated using Eq. 22). For products whose processing rates necessarily fluctuate with time (seasonal fruits and vegetables, for example) the installed power capacity must be adequate to process at the peak throughput rate.

Schematic diagram of the collision between an energetic incident electron and an atomic electron. electron. The distance of closest approach between the particles, termed the impact parameter, is designated as b. The differential change in momentum dp imparted to the atomic electron in a time dt is equal to the electric force F between the particles, which is given by e2 /r2 (cgs units). e is the electronic charge and r is the instantaneous distance between the electrons. Assuming that the energy transferred, E, is a relatively small fraction of the incident electron energy E, and that the direction of the incident electron does not change appreciably during the collision, the total change in momentum p of the atomic electron is given by the time integral of the perpendicular component of the force.

Assuming that the product can be effectively processed, the first technology decision to be made is whether or not electron beams can be used. 4 g/cm2 . This approach will give the highest throughput rates (Figure 2-17) and lowest breakeven processing costs (Figure 2-18). 35, from Figure 2-11. 7 are acceptable, then double-sided electron beam processing using 10-MeV electrons is always the preferred approach. If this special circumstance does not apply, then additional checks must done. 35, then inefficient, but flexible, x-ray processing must be used.

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