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By R. Reed Hunt, James B. Worthen
Study correct to the subject of specialty and reminiscence dates again over a hundred years and boasts a literature of good over 2,000 released articles. all through this heritage, quite a few theories of forte and reminiscence were provided and accordingly subtle. There has, even though, by no means been a booklet that brings this wealthy background including the most recent study. This quantity is the 1st to give an old evaluate, the result of the present learn, and a number of other new theories on strong point and reminiscence. every one bankruptcy incorporates a overview of the proper literature and newest study on its subject. The e-book comprises sections that disguise easy conception and behavioral learn on specialty, bizarreness results, specialty results on implicit reminiscence, the improvement of forte around the lifespan, uniqueness in social context, and the neuroscience of uniqueness and reminiscence. within the concluding bankruptcy, Fergus Craik deals his present point of view on strong point and evaluates a number of the different theories of forte awarded within the quantity. Distinctiveness and Memory should be a worthy source for pupil researchers in neuroscience and cognitive, developmental, and social psychology.
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Extra info for Distinctiveness and Memory
Calkins, M. W. (1896). Association: An essay analytic and experimental. Psychological Monographs, 1, 1–56. Cleary, A. , & Greene, R. L. (2002). Paradoxical effects of presentation modality on false memory. Memory, 10, 55–61. Cooper, E. , & Pantle, A. J. (1967). The total-time hypothesis in verbal learning. Psychological Bulletin, 68, 221–243. Craik, F. I. , & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.
The net effect of similarity, therefore, will depend on a trade-off between ease of access along the list and within-list dimensions (also see Hunt, Chapter 1 this volume). 50 when the items are distinct. If the list representation is easily available, as in the typical immediate memory context, similarity should impair performance. 40 when the lists contain unrelated items. 20 The point here is that the mnemonic effect of similarity, induced either by relational processing or by inherent item characteristics, will depend on the discrimination problem facing the individual.
However, some variables associated with list presentation are now known to reduce 18 BASIC ISSUES false memory for the critical nonpresented item. Smith and Hunt (1998) discovered that visual presentation of the study list leads to fewer false responses to the critical item in both recognition and recall than does auditory presentation of the study list, a result now replicated several times (Cleary & Greene, 2002; Gallo, McDermott, Percer, & Roediger, 2001; Kellogg, 2001). This result was interpreted as an effect of distinctive processing.