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By Ethne Barnes
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Additional info for Developmental defects of the axial skeleton in paleopathology
Dermoid Cysts 56 C. Dermoid Sinus 56 Summary Outline: Developmental Ectodermal Inclusion Cysts 57 Part IV. Paraxial Mesoderm Field Defects 58 A. Segmentation Errors 59 1. Asynchronous Development of Hemimetamere Pairs 59 a. Hemimetamere shifts: hemivertebra 60 b. Hemimetamere hypoplasia-aplasia 62 2. Failure of Segmentation 63 a. Block vertebra 63 Page ix b. Klippel-Feil syndrome 67 3. Irregular Segmentation of Ribs 71 4. Neural Arch Joint Failure of Segmentation 76 5. Numerical Errors of Segmentation 78 B.
Other vertebral element defects 267 B. Prechordal Cranial Base Field Defect 269 C. Blastermal Desmocranium Field Defects 271 1. Failure to Coalesce 271 a. Primary suture ossicles 271 2. Metopism 277 3. Sutural Agenesis 277 D. Branchial Arch I Ectodermal Groove Field Defect: Partial Atresia of the External Auditory Meatus 278 E. Branchial Arch I Closing Membrane Field Defects: Tympanic Aperture/Cleft 278 F. Developmental Delay Field Defects of the Sternal Plates 281 1. Failure to Differentiate 282 a.
Therefore, abnormalities affecting the axial skeleton can be traced and defined according to disturbances in morphogenesis occurring within specific embryonic developmental fields associated with the axial skeleton (Gruneberg 1964; Opitz, Jurgen, and Dieker 1969; Spranger et al. 1982). Clinical medicine recognizes that variable expressions of skeletal defects do occur within specific developmental fields during morphogenesis (Goodman and Gorlin 1983; Spranger et al. 1982; Tsou, Yau, and Hodgson 1980).