Download Cosmos and Logos : studies in Greek philosophy by Professor of Philosophy Nicholas Rescher PDF

By Professor of Philosophy Nicholas Rescher

The six stories comprising this quantity take care of a few basic matters in early Greek inspiration: cosmic evaluate in Anaximander, the idea of opposites from the Pre-Socratics to Plato and Aristotle, suggestion experimentation in Pre-Socratic notion, the origins of Greek Skepticism one of the Sophisists, the prehistory of "Buridan's Ass" hypothesis, and the position of esthesis in Aristotle's concept of technological know-how. In every one case, the early dialogue seeks to teach how definite principles bore unforeseen fruit in the course of the next improvement of philosophical concept.

Nicholas Rescher is college professor of philosophy on the collage of Pittsburgh the place he's additionally co-chair of the guts for Philosophy of technological know-how. He earned his doctorate at Princeton in 1951 in years whereas nonetheless on the age of twenty-two--a checklist for Princeton's division of Philosophy. He has served as a president of the yank Philosophical organization, of the yankee Catholic Philosophy organization, of the yankee G. W. Leibniz Society, and of the C. S. Peirce Society and is presently president of the yank Metaphysical Society

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Cosmos and Logos : studies in Greek philosophy

The six reviews comprising this quantity care for a few primary matters in early Greek inspiration: cosmic overview in Anaximander, the speculation of opposites from the Pre-Socratics to Plato and Aristotle, notion experimentation in Pre-Socratic concept, the origins of Greek Skepticism one of the Sophisists, the prehistory of "Buridan's Ass" hypothesis, and the function of esthesis in Aristotle's idea of technological know-how.

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Deduce an outright contradiction from this assumption (this is generally effected by deducing P itself). • Hence establish P. The notorious proof of the incommensurability of the diagonal of a square with its sides—the great Pythagorean secret for whose betrayal Hippasus of Metapontium was, according to tradition, expelled from the Pythagorean school (and perhaps even drowned at sea)—was accomplished by just this device. It remains to this day the standard way of establishing the irrationality of the square root of two—one assumes the contrary as a working hypothesis and derives a contradiction.

Here then we see the inauguration of one of the most fundamental schemata of scientific explanation: the assimilation through analogy of the phenomenon to be explained to one that is already relatively well understood. There are many instances in Anaximander’s theory of just this procedure; to cite just one example, consider his conception of the cosmic formation of air from the primordial moisture as thought of an analogy with the boiling off of water over a fire and the evaporation of a pool of water by the heat of the sun.

However, Xenophanes also introduced an important innovation. He inaugurated a style of sceptical use of thought experimentation. The salient thesis of Xenophanes affords the classical instance of this sort of reasoning: But if cattle and horses or lions had hands, or could draw with their hands and do the works that men can do, then horses would draw the forms of the gods like horses, and cattle like cattle, and they would make their bodies such as they each had themselves. (Kirk & Raven, p. ) This style of reasoning may be depicted as follows: METHOD NO.

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