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By Roman Ingarden, Arthur Szylewicz

Roman Ingarden (1893-1970), one in every of Husserl’s closest scholars and associates, ranks one of the most outstanding of the 1st iteration of phenomenologists. His magisterial Controversy over the life of the World, written through the years of global conflict II in occupied Poland, comprises a primary safety of realism in phenomenology. quantity I, which gets the following its first whole and significant translation into English, initiates the grand undertaking of refuting transcendental idealism, and starts off by way of environment the principles for an complicated and specified ontological procedure. this can be Ingarden’s maximum accomplishment, who's really referred to as a theoretician of literature than an ontologist outdoor of Poland. crucial success of Ingarden’s ontology is an research of the modes of being of varied sorts of gadgets – issues, techniques, occasions, basically intentional items and ideas. The three-volume Controversy is maybe the final nice systematic paintings within the background of philosophy, and unquestionably probably the most vital works in twentieth century philosophical literature.

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This question, which Husserl once touched on under the title “teleology” and promptly dropped, is excluded from consideration under the banner of the phenomenological reduction – as a matter of principle, so to speak. It will be necessary to find here a methodologically irreproachable way to avoid abandoning this important basic question, and avoid any fundamental epistemological error at the same time. That is how things look, at least on the basis of those of Husserl’s writings that have been published thus far [1964].

The (realist or idealist) commitments arrived at from such derivation are ordinarily regarded as comprising not a metaphysical resolution of the Controversy (which, after all, they de facto are), but an epistemological one – although this resolution is subjected to a metaphysical interpretation. This latter is the so-called “transcendental” analysis of the existence of the world. Methodologically, it passes for the exclusively correct way of analyzing this problem, and is supposed to guarantee optimum validity for the results acquired.

They, too, neither attempt to place it in doubt, nor to understand the exact sense in which the real world exists for us. 48 Chapter II And quite naturally so. For the ⌜natural sciences⌝79 generally build their results on the basis of data provided by outer and inner perception ⌜; all of these perceptions are effected in the so-called “natural standpoint,” and therefore have at their foundation the basic “naive” conviction that the world does exist. , the atomic world). ⌝80 So the special sciences of the “real” can only instruct us better than can everyday experience about which matters-of-fact and lawful regularities obtain in the real world.

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