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By D. R. M. Irving

During this groundbreaking learn, D. R. M. Irving reconnects the Philippines to present musicological discourse at the early glossy Hispanic international. For a few and a part centuries, the Philippine Islands have been firmly interlinked to Latin the USA and Spain via transoceanic relationships of politics, faith, exchange, and tradition. the town of Manila, based in 1571, represented an important intercultural nexus and an important conduit for the neighborhood diffusion of Western tune. inside of its ethnically diversified society, imported and native musics performed a very important position within the institution of ecclesiastical hierarchies within the Philippines and in propelling the paintings of Roman Catholic missionaries in neighboring territories. Manila's non secular associations resounded with luxurious vocal and instrumental performances, whereas an annual calendar of festivities introduced jointly many musical traditions of the indigenous and immigrant populations in complicated different types of creative interplay and opposition.

Multiple kinds and genres coexisted in accordance with strict rules enforced by means of kingdom and ecclesiastical professionals, and Irving makes use of the metaphors of ecu counterpoint and enharmony to critique musical practices in the colonial milieu. He argues that the advent and institutionalization of counterpoint acted as a strong agent of colonialism during the Philippine Archipelago, and that contrapuntal constructions have been mirrored within the social and cultural reorganization of Filipino groups less than Spanish rule. He additionally contends that the energetic appropriation of track and dance by way of the indigenous inhabitants constituted an important contribution to the method of hispanization. Sustained "enharmonic engagement" among Filipinos and Spaniards ended in the synthesis of hybrid, syncretic genres and the emergence of functionality kinds which could contest and subvert hegemony. Throwing new gentle on a nearly unknown sector of track heritage, this e-book contributes to present realizing of the globalization of tune, and repositions the Philippines on the frontiers of analysis into early sleek intercultural trade.

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From the Preface :

This e-book illustrates a set of tune manuscripts which was once made in recent times to learn the root for modern functionality Arts. the gathering was firm by way of situations instead of any technique of choice. hence it exhibits the various instructions during which song notation is now going. The manuscripts should not prepared in response to forms of track, yet alphabetically in accordance with the composer's identify. No explanatory details is given.

The textual content for the ebook is the results of a strategy making use of I-Ching likelihood operations. those decided what number phrases concerning his paintings have been to be written via or approximately which of 2 hundred and sixty-nine composers. the place those passages (never greater than sixty-four phrases, occasionally just one) were specially written for this e-book, they're preceded through a paragraph signal and by means of the author's identify. different comments have been selected or written via the editors - John Cage and Alison Knowles. not just the variety of phrases and the writer, however the typography too - letter dimension, depth, and typeface - have been all decided unintentionally operations. This strategy used to be for you to reduce the adaptation among textual content and illustrations. The composition of the pages is the paintings of Alison Knowles.

A precedent for the textual content is the Questionnaire. (The composers have been requested to jot down approximately notation or some· factor correct to it. ) A precedent for the absence of data which characterizes this e-book is the modern aquarium (no longer a gloomy hallway with each one species in its personal illuminated tank separated from the others and named in Latin): a wide glass residence with all of the fish in it swimming as in an ocean. the gathering of manuscripts constitutes an archive, the contents of that are indexed on the finish of this publication. The editors are thankful to the various composers and track publishers who've made this presentation of mid-twentieth century tune notation attainable.

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The responsibility for evangelization among the Chinese was given to the Dominican order. ”52 What de Guignes failed realize, however, was that the committal of sacred objects to water—like burning them or swallowing them—was a Chinese way of effecting these objects’ transcendence from the material world. 54 As subsequent chapters will show, there were concerted attempts made by church authorities in the Philippines to curb such religious subversion and their associated musical practices. While the Chinese rites controversy (concerning the Jesuits’ toleration and accommodation of traditional Chinese religious practices within Roman Catholicism) raged on mainland China and in Rome, the Philippines remained a staunch outpost of religious orthodoxy, led by a hieratic class that sought to stamp out any apparent heresy, especially that which was often expressed or symbolized through music.

71 Besides 42 contrapuntal cultures Japanese Christians, some Siamese and Vietnamese converts to Roman Catholicism also migrated to Manila. 72 During the sixteenth century, the number of Africans traveling to East and Southeast Asia via India increased exponentially because of trading voyages on which they served as slaves or indentured sailors. These voyages included those of the English and Dutch East India Companies, and especially those of the Portuguese, whose trade network incorporated Goa, Malacca, Macau, and Nagasaki.

When Legazpi landed at the Visayan island of Cebu, he established a Spanish settlement on the site of what is now Cebu City. This initial base and another on the island of Panay were not sustained without difficulty, however, and in 1570 an expeditionary force led by Martín de Goiti (d. 1574) and Legazpi’s grandson Juan de Salcedo (1549–76)— who has been dubbed “the Hernán Cortés of the Philippines”—set out to reconnoiter the northern island of Luzon. There they encountered Maynilad. Nestled in a large sheltered bay, into which flowed the mighty Pasig River, Maynilad was ruled by Rajah Soliman (d.

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