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By Russell Lopez (auth.)

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Extra resources for Building American Public Health: Urban Planning, Architecture, and the Quest for Better Health in the United States

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53 Poor housing spread in tandem with industrialization. 61 A contemporary named Thomas Beames reported: Added to these causes of wretchedness is the natural lowness of the ground, which requires the utmost resources of science to obviate its inevitable results; flooding cellars, densely peopled, with loathsome streams accumulating in the gutters and kennel-stagnant refuse waters emitting abominable smells—and noxious vapours increased by heaps of garbage by the road-side;62 U R B A N L I F E A N D H E A LT H I N T H E N I N E T E E N T H C E N T U R Y 17 For the most part, employers did not develop housing for their workers.

Efforts to build model tenements in Boston date back to the mid-nineteenth century, when Charles Elliot Norton built a very financially successful building, but its inhabitants were skilled rather than unskilled laborers; the rents were too high for slum dwellers. 82 Factory workers could not afford the model tenements and the economics of housing affordability were not yet well calculated. 84 As will be seen in the next chapter, ultimately, reformers were to abandon building model tenements and turn to the development of building codes and standards.

31 Smaller cities also developed. 32 To give some idea of the growth of cities: • London grew from 960,000 in 1800 to 4,000,000 in 1900 and 8,000,000 by 1950. • Paris’s population in 1800 was 550,000, and in 1900 it was 2,800,000. • New York went from 60,000 in 1800 to 500,000 by 1850 and 7,900,000 in 1950. • Chicago did not exist in 1800, but had a population of 1,700,000 in 1900 and more than double that by 1950. 35 For the most part, streets were unpaved and without drains so garbage and animal droppings deposited on the streets stayed there.

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