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By Philip C. Kendall and Steven D. Hollon (Eds.)
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Additional info for Assessment Strategies for Cognitive–Behavioral Interventions
For example, suppose a graduate student who views himself as very incompetent does very well not just on one exam but on all exams in a course. Moreover, he learns that his classmates did poorly on all the exams despite the fact that they studied more hours than he did. Such a student is in a cognitive dilemna. Although the situational information points to competence as a very plausible causal inference, this attribution is at odds with the student's generalized beliefs about himself. There are a number of ways for the student to resolve his cognitive dilemna.
People holding differentiated generalized beliefs may be less inclined to exhibit cross-situational consistency in attributions than people holding undifferentiated generalized beliefs. Whereas Julia might believe that she is extremely good at math, good in history, below average in English, and poor in science, Irene might believe that she is simply dumb. Learning that they failed both a math exam and a science exam, Julia might attribute the math failure to bad luck but attribute the science failure to lack of ability; Irene might attribute both failures to her lack of ability.
Attributional Styles 27 event. Certain configurations of information make some attributions more salient than others and some not plausible at all. , Heider, 1958; Kelley, 1967) argued that certain configurations of situational information compel people to make particular causal inferences while other configurations of situational information do not effectively disambiguate an event with respect to its cause. , schémas) about themselves, other people, and the world (see also Ajzen, 1977 and Ross, 1977, 1978 for a similar portrayal of the attribution process).