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I t is characteristic of EnUghtenment rationaUsm, pre­ cisely, to ignore these estabUshed, merely traditional values and prac­ tices of society in order to start again from scratch and design new and more rational principles. Hegel suggests that Kantian universalization reconstructs the intersubjective dimension, the relationship to others which is obviously essential to any understanding ofmorality, only in an abstract and uUimately empty way. The categorical imper­ ative is a reconstruction of universal 'moraUty' {Moralitat);but can­ not ground the concrete intersubjectivity of 'ethical life' (Sittlichkeit).

Both the existing poUtical order and the prevailing philosophy and religion must be transformed or even aboUshed. Through radical social and intellec­ tual criticism, philosophers must bring about inteUectual and poUtical revolution. Of the Young Hegelians Ludwig Feuerbach, in particular, Feuerbach, Marx a n d Marxism 43 was to exert long-lasting influence, mainly through his influence on the thought of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. From these origins a series of important contributions to continental philosophy can be traced.

A moral action mustbemotivated purely by the intention to do what is right, not b y ^ y particular interest or desire of the individual. The 'synthetic a priorV principles of morality must be derived, therefore, from the abstract notion of a rational will or agent, from which all distinguishing individual features have been expunged. The individu­ al acts freely and morally when he or she acts purely in obedience to a universal moral law that is the product of reason alone. ' This is Kant's version of the more familiar 'golden rule', that you should do to others what you would have them do to you.

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