Download America Behind Bars: Trends in Imprisonment, 1950-2000 by Rick Ruddell PDF

By Rick Ruddell

Ruddell examines the political, cultural, and social elements that contributed to the expansion in incarceration within the usa from 1952 to 2000. Controlling for the impacts of financial rigidity, violent crime, unemployment, direct outlays for counsel, the proportion of inhabitants that's black, and the proportion of men elderly 15 to 29 years, Ruddell stories the impacts of political disaffection, civic disengagement, and social disruption on grownup imprisonment developments. The findings supply proof of the relationships among raises within the use of punishment and cultural or political values. the implications additionally aid the proposition that using punishment is an inherently advanced and political method.

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The subject in this case, Gary Ewing, was a repeat offender with a lengthy criminal record, and while this theft could have been prosecuted as a misdemeanor, it was instead prosecuted as a felony. Since this was Ewing’s “third strike”, this offense resulted in a 25-year sentence of imprisonment. First enacted by Washington State in 1993, three-strike sentencing schemes were intended to ensure that repeat felony offenders would be severely punished. , 2001). Punishing repeat offenders with lengthy prison sentences is not a new phenomenon.

PUNISHING FOR PROFIT Not everybody opposes mass imprisonment policies. 1 million offenders has created a number of interest groups that actively support or promote the use of punishment for profit. Neither high-imprisonment policies nor a bloated correctional infrastructure are likely to be abandoned without fierce opposition (Austin, 1990; Lilly and Deflem, 1996; Lilly and Knepper, 1993). Communities that house prisons as well as stakeholders such as correctional officer unions (or associations) and the corporations that supply goods and services to these facilities have a financial stake in maintaining these programs (Chambliss, 1999; Christie, 1994).

Findings such as this make it difficult to convince members of minority groups that they are not being discriminated against. Consequently, disproportionate minority confinement might be an outcome of the drug policies reported above, as well as increased policing in the inner city areas that are the source of many prison inmates (Kane, 2003). Yet, there may be some other sources of high rates of minority confinement. ” Thus, one additional reason for enhanced law enforcement in areas populated by minorities is the response to calls for service.

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