Download A Small Dose of Toxicology: The Health Effects of Common by Steven G. Gilbert PDF

By Steven G. Gilbert

Daily, we come into touch with many rather innocuous components which may, at definite concentrations, be poisonous. this is applicable not just to noticeable applicants akin to asbestos, lead, and gas, but in addition to compounds reminiscent of caffeine and headache capsules. whereas the sphere of toxicology has a number of texts dedicated to points of biology, chemistry, and mechanism of motion, the necessity continues to be for a ebook that locations toxicology in the framework of our day-by-day lives. A Small Dose of Toxicology offers the rules of toxicology via exploring the consequences of universal chemical brokers comparable to caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. It reports the basics of dose-response and components of person sensitivity in regard to those medicinal drugs, after which applies this information to environmental contaminates equivalent to lead, arsenic, insecticides, mercury, and radiation. Chapters talk about neurotoxicology, probability overview, carcinogenicity, and with numerous particular poisonous brokers, with every one bankruptcy designed as a self-contained module to permit for flexibility within the choice of own or educational fabric. Exploring present toxicology matters inside of a human context, this article discusses how toxicology impacts our daily lives whereas delivering perception into the wider problems with public wellbeing and fitness and sickness prevention. Environmental and public well-being execs, in addition to newcomers and scholars requiring a simple origin in toxicology will locate this source tremendously priceless.

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Extra resources for A Small Dose of Toxicology: The Health Effects of Common Chemicals

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These agents have different toxic side effects for males and females. Females have additional issues related to pregnancy. Pregnancy causes many changes in physiology that can alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of an agent and thus dramatically influence its effects. For example, during pregnancy there is a decrease in liver metabolism that increases the half-life of caffeine. This means that a pregnant woman will maintain higher blood caffeine levels for a longer period of time than when not pregnant, resulting in increased caffeine exposure to the developing infant.

Sometimes one chemical can cause the body to respond more strongly to another chemical generating a synergistic effect. We know, for example, that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke greatly increases the risk of cancer from asbestos. The increase is not additive – that is, it is not equal to the risk from tobacco plus the risk from asbestos – but is actually much greater than the sum of the two risks. There are also cases where exposure to two chemicals reduces toxic effects. Methanol (wood alcohol) causes blindness if ingested.

Despite intensive research, the mechanism of effect of alcohol on the fetus is unknown. 5 Health effects By any measure, alcohol has an enormous impact on our society: it contributes to 100,000 deaths and costs $166 billion in the US alone. The toxic effects of alcohol have resulted in many efforts and laws to control and regulate its consumption. While alcohol affects the individual consumer, there are two areas of particular concern: (1) the effects of alcohol on the developing infant from maternal alcohol consumption (2) the death and injury caused by driving motor vehicles following drinking.

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