Download A History of Women Philosophers: Modern Women Philosophers, by Londa Schiebinger (auth.), Mary Ellen Waithe (eds.) PDF

By Londa Schiebinger (auth.), Mary Ellen Waithe (eds.)

1. Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. ordinary Philosophy.- IV. Feminism.- V. Conclusions.- 2. Kristina Wasa, Queen of Sweden.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophy.- 1. conventional checks of Kristina’s Views.- 2. Kristina’s Philosophical Development.- three. Kristina and Descartes.- four. spiritual Skepticism.- five. Philosophy and Linguistics.- 6. The Maxims.- 7. Misogyny and Feminism.- III. Conclusions.- three. Anne Finch, Viscountess Conway.- I. Biography.- II. impact on Leibniz.- III. Philosophical Writing.- IV. Summary.- four. Sor Juana Inés De los angeles Cruz.- I. Biography.- II. Prose Philosophical Works.- 1. Carta Atenagórica.- 2. Respuesta.- III. Philosophical Poetry.- 1. Sueño.- 2. Sonnets.- IV. Conclusions.- five. Damaris Cudworth Masham.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- 1. Correspondence.- 2. religion and Reason.- three. ladies, schooling and Reason.- four. Epistemology, Feminism and ethical Philosophy.- III. Conclusions.- 6. Mary Astell.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. non secular Epistemology and Women.- 1. situation of Women.- 2. ladies, Epistemology and Reason.- three. Marriage and Subjection of Women.- IV. Epistemology and spiritual Knowledge.- 1. cause and Revelation.- 2. even if subject Can Think.- three. no matter if God is the effective explanation for ache and Pleasure.- V. Conclusions.- 7. Catharine Trotter Cockburn.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophical Writings.- III. Epistemological Foundations of ethical Law.- 1. wisdom of advantage and Vice.- 2. traditional Conscience.- IV. Epistemological origin of Religion.- 1. The position of Rewards and Punishments.- 2. On Revelation.- V. The Immortality of the Soul.- 1. no matter if God may possibly upload proposal to Matter.- VI. Summary.- VII. Conclusions.- eight. Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier De Breteuil Du Châtelet-Lomont.- I. Biography.- II. Ethics, faith and Philosophy of Language.- 1. Ethics.- 2. Philosophy of Religion.- three. Philosophy of Language.- III. Collaborative Works.- 1. Collaboration on Voltaire’s Éléments.- 2. Collaboration with Voltaire on Traité de Métaphysique.- IV. Metaphysics.- 1. Writings on Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science.- 2. the advance of du Châtelet’s perspectives on Metaphysics.- three. loose Will: difficulties for Newtonian Science.- four. fixing the issues of Newtonianism.- five. response to du Châtelet’s Metaphysics.- V. Philosophy of Science.- 1. hearth, mild and Color.- 2. clinical Method.- VI. Conclusions.- nine. Mary Wollstonecraft.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. Philosophy.- 1. Human Nature.- 2. Ethics.- three. Social and Political Philosophy.- four. Philosophy of Education.- five. affects on Wollstonecraft’s Philosophy.- 6. Critique of Rousseau.- IV. Conclusions.- 10. Clarisse Coignet.- I. Introduction.- II. Metaethics and ethical Philosophy.- 1. the hot technology of Morality.- 2. Freedom, a truth of Human Nature.- three. guy, the writer of Morality.- four. accountability, a legislations of Conscience.- III. Political and Social Philosophy.- 1. The kingdom, an Extension of person Morality.- 2. The Social Contract.- three. The Separation of faith and Morality.- four. Women’s Suffrage and Women’s Destiny.- IV. Conclusions.- eleven. Antoinette Brown Blackwell.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophy.- 1. Metaphysics.- 2. Truth.- three. Perception.- four. Time.- five. God.- 6. Immortality.- 7. Mind/Body Problem.- eight. Nature of the Sexes.- III. Conclusions.- 12. Julie Velten Favre.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. Philosophy.- 1. The cohesion of ethical Law.- 2. Woman’s ethical Vocation.- three. the nice Human Family.- four. An “Ethics of Abundance”.- IV. Conclusions.- thirteen. ladies Philosophers of the 17th, Eighteenth and 19th Centuries.- I. The 17th Century.- 1. Anna Maria van Schurman.- 2. Bathsua Pell Makin.- three. Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine.- four. Helena Lucretia Cornaro Piscopia.- II. The Eighteenth Century.- 1. Laura Bassi Verati.- 2. Catharine Sawbridge Macaulay-Graham.- three. Sophia, somebody of caliber [pseud.].- four. (Marie) Olympe de Gouges (Marie de Gouzes).- five. Mary Fairfax Somerville.- 6. Anna Doyle Wheeler.- III. The 19th Century.- 1. Catharine Ward Beecher.- 2. Harriet Martineau.- three. Harriet Hardy Taylor Mill.- four. Jenny Poinsard d’Héricourt.- five. George Eliot (Marian Evans).- 6. Clemence Royer.- 7. Juliette Lambert l. a. Messine Adam.- eight. Christine Ladd-Franklin.- nine. Hortense Allart de Meritens.- IV. Conclusions.

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Neither God nor constitutions make us free, she said, freedom is constitutive of human nature. It is a human accomplishment. Therefore, morality is created by humans, not by deities or by states. Kantianism makes sense because man is neither an imitation of God nor an imperfect creature in search of perfection. Man qua man is an end in himself. Coignet held that the French Revolution did not go far enough in opposing the rule of man to the rule of God and in separating religious and civil law .

31 Unable to found her own "sect" of philosophy, Cavendish set forth to "argue with some famous and eminent writers," ancient and modem, whose conceptions of nature did not conform to her own. 32 Though many of Cavendish's views were original, many also reflected those of the Newcastle circle as transmitted through her husband, William, reflecting (especially) the views of Hobbes, who had tutored William in years past. III. 33 Cavendish was a thoroughgoing materialist. 34 Yet, she did not contribute to what Carolyn Merchant has described as the "death of nature," the process by which master mechanists of the scientific revolution came to think of nature as a system of dead, inert particles moved by external forces.

Precised from the rest; but they are all parts of one infinite body ... 6. Nature is purely corporeal and material, spiritual beings ... are no ways belonging to Nature. 36 Cavendish denied that there is "any Creature or part of Nature without. Life and Soul. "37 For Cavendish matter is not dead body, devoid of spirit; rather, corporeal nature is both subject and agent. "38 On similar grounds, she criticized Descartes's radical distinction between mind and body. She insisted that a fundamental unity pervaded the world, that nature was composed of one selfmoving, intelligent matter.

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